Philosophy (Greek: φιλοσοφία) is the science of conformity to the most general laws of existence (ie, nature and society), human thought, and the process of cognition.

Philosophy is one of the forms of social consciousness, which is ultimately determined by the economic relations of society.

The word philosophy

«Filo» and «sofia» are Greek words. «Sophia» means wisdom, and «filo» means to love. «Philosophy» means «to love wisdom.» «Philosophy» originated from the fact that medieval oriental scholars called this Greek word Arabic.

For the first time, Pythagoras called himself a «philosopher» and said:

«I know my place. I know that wisdom is only God’s knowledge and cannot be in me. I can only love wisdom.»

The subject of philosophy

The term philosophy first appears in Pythagoras. It was first distinguished by Plato as a special science. Philosophy emerged as a science in a society of slavery. Although the earliest philosophical views belonged to the East, philosophy was first studied in Greece as a systematic science.

The problem of existence in philosophy

The category of being occupies a central place in the system of categorical apparatus of various schools of philosophy and currents. The word being in various world languages ​​roughly means «to exist,» «to exist,» «to appear,» «reality.» In modern philosophical literature, the concept of being is used in two senses:

In the narrow sense — the objective reality that exists independently of consciousness;
In a broad sense, matter, consciousness, ideas, feelings, human fantasies.

Plato greatly expanded the understanding of existence. For the first time in the history of philosophy, he showed that not only material things but also ideals exist.

In medieval Christian philosophy, the «true» being, which consists of the existence of God, is contrasted with the «unreal» being, and it is shown that all non-real beings were created by God. There are two types of beings, the creator and the creator.

It allows us to select from the various forms of existence the ones that possess the most common and obvious specific methods of existence. The first group includes the specificity of living and non-living things; The second group includes the existence of a person who has a special place among living beings, who has consciousness, thinking, who works with ideal images, that is, who thinks abstractly. In creating the general picture of existence, a unique pyramid is formed, based on inanimate nature, living nature on it, and above it a person consisting of the unity of spirit, animate and inanimate nature. The existence of things and processes of inanimate nature is the whole natural and artificial world, as well as all the states and events of nature (stars, planets, earth, water, etc.). The existence of living nature has two levels. The first level consists of the whole biosphere, flora and fauna, which is alive, but has no spirit, no consciousness, metabolizes with the environment, and has the ability to reproduce. The second level consists in the existence of concrete people, in the existence of man and his consciousness, which consists of a social being and an ideal being.